Abuse of authority 5.3.2 The correctional environment should be safe for both inmates, and the officials working in correctional centres. In Paragraph 5.4.5 of the White Paper on Corrections the DCS acknowledges that because correctional centres operated within a "closed" system, they were more vulnerable to abuses of authority. Although the nature of the environment necessitated its occasional use, the use of force should be governed by clear and transparent procedures, and should only be resorted to "when order has completely broken down". The security breaches reported, specifically those in which officials have been implicated, were of serious concern. They point not only to centre- level officials' failure to understand their roles and the limitations to their powers, but also to the culture of inappropriately responding to blatant abuses of power. The DCS's staff shortages and inappropriate shift systems led to increased opportunities to abuse authority, and increased security breaches. These placed both officials and inmates at risk. 5.3.3 Although the Committee recognises the risk the environment poses to officials, it has and continues to emphasise that the regulations and provisions governing the use of necessary force must be adhered to at all times. The DCS's apparent lack of cooperation to ensure that inmates who have been assaulted by officials laid criminal charges, and the often too sporadic, and often too lenient outcome of internal disciplinary proceedings, draw into question the DCS's ability to ensure humane incarceration.