. This oversight visit should serve as a benchmark for further engagements with the Department, Civil Society Organisations, Industry, such as Eskom and Sasol etc. during the course of the Fifth Parliament; . Parliament must monitor the effects of municipal and provincial government responses and activities to the air quality laws and regulations viz NEM: Air Quality Amendment Act of 2013 through its oversight activities; . The Department should ensure that companies that contribute to pollution in our communities should shoulder their responsibility of the health hazards that accompany such pollution activities. They therefore must be penalised and compensate for polluting and causing health hazards to our communities. A law that makes these companies to compensate for health hazards caused to individuals/citizens must be enacted; . The Department should clarify the composition of the Compliance Team and frequency of enforcement visits. The Department should also clarify whether its officials undertake joint compliance enforcement visits with provincial government officials; . The Department and Parliament should satisfy themselves on the appropriateness of the penalties that polluters are subjected to; . The Portfolio Committee would continuously through oversight, ascertain whether the National Government as a whole, including Municipal and Provincial spheres, have the necessary and adequate capacity to monitor and enforce our air quality laws and regulations; . Government as a whole, and specifically the Department, should take the responsibility for measuring and monitoring the impact of air and water pollution on our communities; . Communities are barometers for measuring the effectiveness of government service delivery, which in this case is the provision of safe environment that is not harmful to their wellbeing, including clean air. It is therefore important for the Committee to maintain open lines of interaction with communities to be in tune with the processes of policy and legislation implementation on the ground; . The Government, and specifically the Department of Energy and its entities should urgently ensure that communities and households that are still without electricity are provided with electricity so that they do not depend and use air polluting energy sources; . The Portfolio Committee would, on a continuous basis engage the Department and affected Stakeholders on air quality, namely the Communities in the air quality hotspots, Community-based organisations/NGOs, Municipal and Local Government and the industry; and . The Department working with the industry should urgently to undertake or commission studies to determine the externalities of air pollution in priority areas to particularly assess economic costs (e.g., loss of useful life, wage losses, decline in agricultural productivity, etc.); social costs (medical services costs and loss of life expectancy); and environmental costs, that is, damage to the various components of ecosystems.